He concedes that the development of citizenship can be traced through the evolution of three elements, namely civil rights, political rights and social rights. This is because, as Marshall explains, the historical phase of development of citizenship rights was initiated by growth of civil rights that were central to the competitive market economy within capitalism.
Liberal citizenship is based on the idea of formal equality between citizens, and through this, it seeks to mask and neutralize class antagonism in capitalist societies by insisting on equal political rights of the workers and capitalists. For example, inability of certain individuals to access education renders their right to freedom of speech ineffective, because in lack of education, they might not have something worthwhile to say, or make themselves even heard.
The dominance of civil rights during the early phase of development of capitalism also helped to make its structural inequalities invisible. Marshall says that freedom to pursue goals in life, does not imply any guarantee that those goals will be achieved.
The public life represented by the institution of citizenship comes to be identified increasingly with the activities of the male. Norton and Co. Cambridge [Eng.